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Emissions are solid, liquid or gaseous substances or compounds as well as noises, radiation, heat, vibrations or similar phenomena which are released by a fixed or mobile source (e.g. plant) or from a product to the environment.
Immissions are contaminations resulting from emissions which are polluting air, water or soil at the place of impact. The immissions act on plants, animals and humans.
Through the unique design of the Mahler plants (e.g. hydrogen plants, oxygen generators, nitrogen generation plants or protective gas generators) the availability can be assumed as more that 98 % per year, i. e. more than 8600 hours per year.
The majority of Hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming (SMR). Hydrogen is generated from a hydrocarbon (e.g. natural gas) and water at high temperatures in catalytic reformers. Typically the Hydrogen is purified by using a PSA unit. About 95 % of the total global Hydrogen is used at the site where it is produced.
At Mahler-plants the ignition of the burners is done automatically from the control container/room, no manual ignition by an operator is necessary. Mahler designs tailor-made and standard plants and has already built more than 4500 plants worldwide.
There is a large infrastructure of hydrogen today to meet the needs of industrial applications including metal processing, refining, chemical production processes, fats and oils production, for processes in electronic industry and for the polysilicon process in the photovoltaic industry. About 50 million tons is produced every year. This would be enough to fuel 250 million fuel cell cars.
The construction of the plant is a special design on request of the customer and is exactly designed to meet their requirements.
A reduction of the plant capacity to 30% is realizable without problems. Subsequently increasing of the plant capacity is not possible, because the equipment is in size and specification/construction exactly designed in accordance with the process flows. This does apply for the hydrogen plants, the oxygen generators as well as for the nitrogen generation plants.
Olefins or alkenes are hydrocarbons with minimum one double bond between two carbon atoms.
Initially the cost for Hydrogen depends on the production technology (investment cost) and furthermore mainly on the cost for the feedstock and the power. Storage, Maintenance etc. are also part of the cost factors. Industrial customers are offered a wide variety of prices depending on their location, their required quantity and quality.
From a reasonable and economical point of view the operating pressure of the Hydrogen-PSA-unit, as part of a hydrogen generation plant as well as for a stand-alone plant, should be between 10 and 30 bar(abs).
The process gas in a hydrogen plant before purification in the PSA plant contains approx. 70 – 74 % hydrogen.
The reforming of natural gas is the most efficient process. But the HYDROFORM-C plant is also the most expensive type of hydroform generation plant. The additional investment will be covered by the lower operating costs after 2-4 years.
For the purification of the hydrogen in a hydrogen generator the process of Pressure-Swing-Adsorption (PSA) is applied. The hydrogen -recovery in a 4-bed PSA-unit is approx. 80 %.
In most cases, the steam is generated inside the hydrogen plant by cooling down the hot process gas and the fluegas from the steam reformer.
No, but in presence of an ignitable substance the oxygen enables the combustion.
Molecular sieves are zeolites. Zeolites are crystalline three dimensionals alumosilicates with cavities inside the crystal lattice. These cavities are connected by channels, the so-called pores. The pores have an exact defined diameter which is the most important parameter for the application of zeolites. That means just molecules having a diameter smaller than the diameter of the pores reaching the cavities. Thereby an accurate separation (selectivity, molecular sieve effect) between adsorbable and non-adsorbable molecules is possible.
For the generation of oxygen by means of the pressure swing adsorption process (PSA, VSA, VPSA) mainly the following molecular sieves (zeolites)are used:
Because the adsorption process cannot separate all the argon. Therefore at 95% oxygen we have less than 0,15% nitrogen, the rest is mainly argon.
CMS made of base material charcoal
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